Vygotsky introduced the social aspect of learning into constructivism. He proposed that language and the conceptual schemes that are transmitted by means of language are essentially social phenomena, and therefore knowledge is not simply constructed, it is co-constructed. Vygotsky defined the "zone of proximal learning," according to which students solve problems beyond their actual developmental level (but within their level of potential development) under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.
John Dewey, often recognised as the philosophical founder of the student-centred approach to education, stated that students working together is vital to unity and success, and that "education is a social process."2
This concept was built upon by Jonassen (1994) who proposed that constructivist learning environments support:
1 Dumont, H., Istance, D., & Benavides, F. (2012) The Nature of Learning: Using Research to Inspire Practice, OECD Innovative Learning Environments Project, p.3
2 Dewey, J. (1897) My Pedagogic Creed. School Journal, vol. 54 (3) p. 77-80.
3 Jonassen, David H. (1994) Thinking Technology: Toward a Constructivist Design Model. Educational Technology, 34, p. 35.